Sec 5

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Lets compare the force calculated in Eq. (5.5) - due to the diverging Em field - with Newton's Law for a force between two hydrogen atoms.  The gravity force between two hydrogen atoms can be calculated as follows:


Note the similarity in magnitude between Eq. (6.1) and Eq. (5.5).  The equations have the same power with distance.

 Is gravity simply a pseudo-force caused by the relativistic effects of moving charges - calculated as the divergent Em field? Perhaps gravitation may due to the fact that we do not have the right coordinate system?  Curiously, the divergent atomic Em field does have all the characteristics of gravity, such as a non-shieldable force that follows the inverse square of distance law.

Atoms that generate an Em field will give rise to nearby electrostatic fields that are set up to counter balance anything that is polarized by such Em fields.   If we ignore the effects of particle spin, it means that there are no net forces on a single charged elementary particle suspended in a gravitational field - that is, if it is located inside a closed box of normal matter.  We can predict that a single positive or negative elementary particle will "float" in a gravitational field, as if with no weight.  However, a dielectric (such as a neutral atom) will fall in the same situation.

It may be argued that elementary particles have no weight at all - and that they only have only inertia and mass.  Interpretation of results from a free fall experiment of electrons at Stanford University (F. C. Witteborn and W. M. Fairbank ) may suggest that elementary single particles do not have weight.  The results from Stanford University showed that the gravitational acceleration of electrons in a metal tube was close to zero (measured to within 9%).  The scientists explained this unusual result as the effect of the earth gravitational pull on free electrons in metal.  It was argued that each electron and nucleus in the metal were acted on by an average electrical field (set up by a slight displacement of charges), polarizing the metal and exactly counteracting the free floating electrons inside the tube.

According to the divergent Em field theory, the experiments at Stanford, could be explained by understanding that there are no forces on non-dielectric charged particles (such as an electron) located in cavity immersed in an Em field.  The electrostatic field, setup inside the cavity to counteract to the Em field, will exactly cancel the Em field because of separation of charges. Understanding this, a single electron will behave as having no weight, since Em - Es = 0, and the electron will appear to have no acceleration in a gravitational field.

Complete atoms and molecules - with dielectric constants greater than zero - will accelerate in a divergent Em field.   As discussed earlier, the Em fields generated by ordinary matter cannot be measured directly by electronic means.   This is because the Em fields can not be shielded and all instrumentation and wires are polarized so there are no currents.  This effect will may cause us to think that there is no Em field present.  However,  we will see the  dielectric  force that is similar in magnitude to the force of gravity.

In free space, protons, located away from other objects, will accelerate if they are in a divergent Em field.  This is due to the electrical Em field that will act directly on the elementary charges without any counteracting electrostatic fields.

 Interestingly, the Earth's atmosphere does measure an electrostatic potential voltage gradient of approximate 100 V/m.  Is this the electrostatic field that the ionosphere produces to counteract an Em field generated by mother Earth?   The Earth's electrostatic field does have the correct polarity to support such a theory.   No theory so far seems to explain why the Earth electrostatic field is never depleted despite all the lightning and discharging of energy.  The Em field theory explains this puzzling effect as the continuos polarization of the ionosphere, generated by the atomic matter of Earth.  Due to this effect, the ionosphere will never be discharged.


bullet Introduction
bullet Induction and Relativity
bullet The Motional Electric Field
bullet Magnetic Influences in a Zero B-Field
bullet Dielectric Effects from Divergent -Electric Fields
bullet Gravitational Forces on Elementary Particles
bullet Summary
bullet Acknowledgement
bullet References

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