 





MAGNETIC INFLUENCES IN A ZERO BFIELD:
In the general theory of quantum electrodynamics, one takes the vector and scalar potentials as the fundamental quantities in a set of equations that replace the Maxwell equations. E and B are slowly disappearing from the modern expression of physical law; they are being replaced by the vector potential, A and scalar potential, O. Feynman says the vector potential is not just a mathematical convenience, but is introduced because it does have an important physical significance (Feynman) . Lets review a few of examples:
 The Long Solenoid  The Electron Interference Experiment  Two Moving Magnet Experiment  The Hooper Coil
The Long Solenoid:
It is easy to agree that a long solenoid carrying an electric current has a Bfield inside  but none outside. If we arrange a situation where the electrons are to be found only outside of the solenoid, we know that there will still be an influence on the motion of electrons  as this is the workings of the common electrical transformer. This phenomena has always been of interest to students, because the induction in the wires takes place in a region of space where the resultant magnetic flux is reduced to zero. How could this be? According to classical physics this is impossible, as the force depends only on B, yet we use this transformer principle in common electronic components.
It turns out, that quantum mechanically we can find out that there is a magnetic field inside the solenoid by going around it  even without ever going close to it. We must use the vector potential, A , as shown in figure 4. Alternatively, if we are not too concerned about the zero Bfield in the region of the electron, we can also use Faraday's Law of Induction. This law states that the induced electromotive force is equal to the rate at which the magnetic flux through a circuit is changing, as in 





The Electron Interference Experiment:
Physical effects on charged particles  in a zero Bfield  have been studied since the 1950s. The reader is advised to refer to quantum interference of electrons (S. Olariu and I. Iovitzu Popescu) , for further study.
Although this is a very important subject, we encourage the reader to investigate this area for himself. Bohm and Aharanow show in their electron interference experiment that a magnetic field can influence the motion of electrons even though the field exists only in regions where there is an arbitrarily small probability of finding the electrons.
Two Moving Magnets Experiment:
Magnetic flux is constructed from two sources, as in figure 5. Both magnets move uniformly in opposite directions with a speed V producing an Em on the electron, inside the conductor. We can find the total Em field by superposition, as follows: 





The Hooper Coil:
The author has tested a setup by pulsing strong currents, opposite and equal, through multiple parallel conductors. The configuration of the conductors in this type of experiment will cancel the Bfields, while still producing an Em field, in accordance with Eq. 4.2. This is similar to an experiment by Hooper (W. J. Hooper) , who successfully predicted and measured the motional electric field  all in zero resultant Bfield.
Interestingly, all of the above experiments can influence an electron with a zero Bfield, in the region of the electron. This has some profound implications  one of which is that the motional electric force field is immune to electrostatic or magnetic shielding.
Experimentally, it can be confirmed that the motional electric field is immune to shielding and follows the boundary conditions of the magnetic (not electric) field. The only way to shield a motional electric field is to use a magnetic shield around the source of the magnetic flux  containing it at the source. These effects are not startling if one remembers that the motional electric field is a magnetic effect and that a magnetic field has a different boundary condition than the electric field.



 
